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The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioural specialisations, and their sole aim is to defend the colony. Many soldiers have big heads with highly modified powerful jaws so enlarged they cannot feed themselves. Instead, like juveniles, they are fed by workers.5556 Fontanelles, simple holes in the forehead which exude defensive secretions, are a feature of their family Rhinotermitidae.57 Many species have been readily identified using the qualities of the soldiers' larger and darker head and large mandibles.53 Among certain termites, soldiers may utilize their globular (phragmotic) heads to obstruct their narrow tunnels.58 Different sorts of soldiers include minor and significant soldiers, and nasutes, which have a horn-like nozzle frontal projection (a nasus).53 These unique soldiers can spray noxious, sticky secretions containing diterpenes in their enemies.59 Nitrogen fixation has an important role in nasute nutrition.60.
The reproductive caste of a mature colony includes a prosperous female and man, known as the queen and king.61 The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for the colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.62 In some species, the abdomen of this queen swells up radically to increase fecundity, a feature known as physogastrism.61 Depending on the species, the queen begins producing reproductive winged alates at a certain time of year, and enormous swarms emerge in the colony when nuptial flight begins.
A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into workers, but others might farther moult to become soldiers alates.
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Termites are often compared with all the social Hymenoptera (ants and various species of bees and wasps), but their differing evolutionary origins result in major differences in life span. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, the workers are exclusively female. Males (drones) are haploid and develop from unfertilised eggs, while females (both workers and the queen) are both diploid and grow from fertilised eggs.
Depending on species, both male and female workers may have different roles in a termite colony.63.
The entire life span of a termite begins with an egg, but is different from that of a bee or ant in that it goes through a developmental process called incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.64 Nymphs resemble little adults, and undergo a series of moults as they grow.
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The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, employees must feed thembut workers also take part in the social life of the colony and have certain different activities to achieve such as foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.5367 Pheromones govern the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of those termites from becoming fertile queens.68.
Termite alates only depart the colony when a nuptial flight takes place. Alate males and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for a colony.70 A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a place. When they perform they excavate a room big enough for both, shut up the entrance and move to partner.70 After mating, the pair never go outdoors and spend the rest of their lives in the nest.
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For example, alates in certain species emerge during the day in summer while others emerge during winter.71 The nuptial flight may also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around regions with a great deal of click for info lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, moisture, wind speed and precipitation.71 The number of termites i thought about this in a colony also varies, with the larger species typically having 1001,000 individuals.
The queen only lays 1020 eggs in the very early stages of the colony, but lays as many as 1,000 a day when the colony is a few years old.53 At adulthood, a primary queen has a great capability to lay eggs. In some species, the mature queen includes a greatly distended abdomen and may create 40,000 eggs a day.72 The two adult ovaries may possess some 2,000 ovarioles every.73 The abdomen increases the queen's body length to several times more than before mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant employees offer assistance.